Estimation of Martensite Start Temperature

The knowledge of the martensite start temperature (Ms) is very important for the targeted heat treatment of steels.
Therefore, many models have been developed to predict Ms without having to perform time-consuming experiments.

On this page, some of the models for estimating Ms are summarized and used to calculate Ms on basis of the chemical composition of the steel. In addition to the models from literature, a new model ("Ingber") is used for estimation of Ms. This model has been developed for high-carbon steels whose Ms are in the range from 0 to 50°C. However, it is also suitable for low and medium carbon low alloy steels and most medium manganese steels.

An overview of the equations used for the calculation is compiled in a pdf file that can be downloaded here: Predicting the Ms - Overview of Equations.pdf


Please indicate the composition of the steel in percent by weight and hit the calculate button.

content in wt.-%
Grain size is only considered in the Lee & Park model.
click to calculate


Calculated martensite start temperatures (in °C) using the models named below. Brief information on each model is displayed on hover the name of the model.

Model for estimationref.calc. Ms (°C)
Ingbersteel research int. 2100576 (2021)
Payson & SavageTrans. Am. Soc. Met. 33 (1944) 261-280
Kung & Rayment (mod. P&S)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
Rowland & LyleTrans. Am. Soc. Met. 37 (1946) 27-47
Kung & Rayment (mod. R&L)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
Grange & StewartTrans. AIME 167 (1946) 467-490
Kung & Rayment (mod. G&S)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
NehrenbergTrans. AIME 167 (1946) 494-498
Kung & Rayment (mod. Nehr.)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
Steven & HaynesJ. Iron Steel Inst. 183 (1956) 349
Kung & Rayment (mod. St&H)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
Andrews (linear)J. Iron Steel Inst. 203 (1965) 721
Kung & Rayment (mod. A-lin)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
Andrews (non-linear)J. Iron Steel Inst. 203 (1965) 721
Kung & Rayment (mod. A-nl)Metall. Trans. A13 (1982) 328-331
TamuraNikkan Kogyo Shinbun Ltd. 40 (1970)
IshidaJ. Alloys Compd. 220 (1995) 126-131
Sverdlin & NessChapter 4 in: Steel Heat Treatment Handbook.
G. E. Totten, 1997, 166-211
Wang (linear)Mater. Trans., JIM 41 (2000) 761-768
Wang (non-linear)Mater. Trans., JIM 41 (2000) 761-768
KunitakeJ. Jap. Soc. for Heat Treatment 41 (2001) 164-169
van BohemenMater. Sci. Technol. 28 (2012) 487-495
TrzaskaArch. Metall. Mater. 61 (2016) 981-986
GramlichResults in Materials 8 (2020) 100147
CapdevilaISIJ International 42 (2002) 894-902
MahieuMetall. Mater. Trans. A33 (2002) 2573-2580
Lee & ParkMetall. Mater. Trans. A44 (2013) 3423-3427
Mikuła & WojnarApplication of anlytical methods in determining weldability of steels, Edt. Fotobit, Kraków, 1996
KaarScr. Mat. 200 (2021) 113923
LiuJ. Mater. Process. Technol. 113 (2001) 556-562
Eichelmann & HullMetall. Mater. Trans. A45 (1953) 77
SteimPhD Thesis, 1970, Universität Karlsruhe
PickeringPhysical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1978
KulmburgBHM 124 (1979) 400
DaiMater. Charact. 52 (2004) 349-354
MonmaTekko-zairyo-gaku, Chapter 'Martensite', 1972
EldisProc. of the Symp. on the Hardenability Concepts with Application to Steel, 1977


Please note that this collection is not complete.
It represents the equations known to us. If you know of other equations, we will be pleased to add them to this collection.

The calculation and further information are also available at GitHub.

We would also like to point out that there are other approaches to calculate Ms values: